In kader van netto energie wordt hieronder stilgestaan bij twee artikelen. Misschien dat ik binnenkort bij beide artikelen wat extra commentaar geef. Beide artikelen sluiten min of meer aan op een eerder bericht uit deze blog:
An overlooked cause of the economic recession in the U.S. is a decade long decline in the quality of the nation’s energy supply, often measured as the amount of energy we get out for a given energy input, says energy expert Carey King of The University of Texas at Austin.
- The worst recessions of the last 65 years were preceded by declines in energy quality for oil, natural gas, and coal. Energy quality is plotted using the energy intensity ratio (EIR) for each fuel. Recessions are indicated by gray bars. In layman’s terms, EIR measures how much profit is obtained by energy consumers relative to energy producers.The higher the EIR, the more economic value consumers (including businesses, governments and people) get from their energy.
- “Many economists have pointed to a bursting real estate bubble as the initial trigger for the current recession, which in turn caused global investments in U.S. real estate to turn sour and drag down the global economy. King suggests the real estate bubble burst because individuals were forced to pay a higher and higher percentage of their income for energy—including electricity, gasoline and heating oil—leaving less money for their home mortgages”.
- “Many economists don’t think of energy as being a limiting factor to economic growth,” says King, a research associate in the university’s Center for International Energy and Environmental Policy. “They think continual improvements in technology and efficiency have completely decoupled the two factors. My research is part of a growing body of evidence that says that’s just not true. Energy still plays a big role.”
Artikel (auteur Kurt Kobb) over netto energie
- Despite the enormous technological advances which have occurred in the industry since 1930, offshore and other harsh drilling environments are so demanding that the amount of energy required to extract oil from them has increased. It is believed that the energy equivalent of one barrel of oil now yields only between 11 and 18 barrels of oil. In fact, what is called energy return on investment (EROI), essentially, the amount of energy we get back in the form of oil for every unit of energy we expend, has been dropping consistently for many years.
- We are told that new unconventional reserves of fossil fuels will pave the way to an energy future still dominated by those fuels. Even if we set aside the question of whether it is wise to burn such fuels in a world facing climate change, the fossil fuel optimists are still pretending that net energy doesn’t matter, only gross extraction rates. When confronted with this issue, they often respond that new (yet-to-be invented!) technology will increase the net energy from such unconventional reserves as tar sands, heavy oil, deepwater oil and shale gas. But this flies in the face of the general trend in fossil fuel EROI which has been declining even as advanced technologies for exploration, extraction and refining have been deployed. That would imply that geological constraints are now winning the race with technology